System Firmware

System firmware is low-level firmware code that supports a Particle device's basic functions. You can think of system firmware as the operating system (OS) for Particle's embedded hardware.

Like an operating system for a computer, Particle system firmware provides a foundation for other applications to run on. More specifically, it enables application firmware (the firmware you write) to run successfully by exposing the underlying behaviors of the device.

Particle system firmware abstracts much of the complexity away from the traditional firmware development experience. Some specific responsibilities of system firmware include:

  • Secure communication: Ensuring that all communications between the device and the Particle cloud are authorized and encrypted
  • Hardware abstraction: Providing a single, unified interface to the device, regardless of the underlying hardware architecture
  • Application enablement: Exposing a feature-rich API that is used by developers to write applications for the device
  • Over-the-air updates: Allowing rapid remote changes to code running on the device while providing resilience in poor connectivity environments

Unlike application firmware, system firmware is written and maintained primarily by the Particle team. This is a conscious decision meant to keep you focused on your particular use case without needing to understand the nuances of low-level device behaviors.

That being said, Particle's firmware repository is available as an open source project for those that want deep visibility into system firmware. To view the code and/or contribute, check out the repo on GitHub.


New features, security patches, and bugfixes are introduced to new versions of system firmware regularly by the Particle team. These changes to system firmware are bundled into releases that are versioned using semantic versioning best practices.

System firmware versions that are suffixed with -rc.x are called prereleases ("rc" stands for release candidate). These prereleases contain the changes that will eventually become a default release, but still need more thorough usage and testing. We recommend that you do not flash prereleased firmware to your production units deployed in the field.

Each release is documented thoroughly to give you a comprehensive picture of what has changed in the new version. For a full list of system firmware releases and their descriptions, please check out the release page on GitHub for the firmware repository.

Firmware Modules

Particle firmware is split into modules: two or more modules for the system firmware and one module for the application firmware.

Each module can be updated independently. This is why over-the-air updates to the user application are so fast: you can update only the user application module without having to update the system firmware modules.

Firmware Dependencies

Application firmware that is written in the Web or Desktop IDEs are compiled against a specific version of system firmware before being sent to a device to run. That is, the system firmware acts as a translator - taking the human-readable code you write and translating into a binary that the device is able to run.

This creates a dependency that must be carefully managed. Application firmware can only run on a device with the same or newer system firmware version than the system firmware used to compile it. This is because the application firmware may be using new functionality that was not available in an older version of system firmware. Allowing a new application to run with older system firmware might lead to a crash.

For example, imagine a new firmware primitive was introduced in system firmware version 1.0.0, Particle.travelInTime(). As an aspiring time traveler, you quickly add the new feature to your firmware logic and send the code off to be compiled and flashed to your Electron.

However, the Electron on your desk is running system firmware 0.9.0, a version that predates the time travel functionality. Instructing the device to use the new firmware method in application firmware before it understands how to do so will of course not work. You can see how application firmware depends on a compatible version of system firmware.

So what happens in these cases?

Safe Mode

When booting up, the Particle device will check dependencies between the application and the system firmware. In the case of an incompatibility between the two, the device will automatically enter into safe mode (breathing magenta).

Safe mode allows the device to connect to the Particle cloud, but does not run application firmware. There are many uses for safe mode, but is particularly relevant when a device receives application firmware compiled against a newer version of system firmware than it currently is running. In this case, safe mode prevents the device from running the incompatible application firmware that will cause it to hard fault.

Safe Mode Healer

Safe mode healer takes things one step further, automatically resolving system firmware incompatibilities when a device enters safe mode. Because a device in safe mode still has network connectivity, it is able to send an event to the Particle Cloud notifying it of the firmware mismatch.

From this event, the Particle Cloud determines the cause of the incompatibility and delivers to the device new system firmware over-the-air. When this happens, you'll see the device rapidly blinking magenta as it receives packets containing the new system firmware. When complete, the device will have what it needs to successfully run the application that was previously flashed.

The combination of safe mode and safe mode healer provides you confidence when flashing new application firmwares to devices. Regardless of the version of system firmware the app was compiled against, the Particle Cloud will ensure the device has what it needs to run it without issue.

A couple of important notes:

  • System firmware versions are backwards compatible. That is, you can flash an app compiled against an older version of system firmware to the device without the device entering into safe mode. The device will not be automatically downgraded to the older version of system firmware
  • System firmware is modular and contains multiple parts. That is, your device will receive 2 or more binary files when getting a system firmware update. When receiving system modules via safe mode healer, the device will reset between each binary flashed to it

Managing System Firmware

Advanced users may need the ability to actively manage system firmware on a fleet of devices. The management tools needed include:

  • Visibility into the version of system firmware running on a device
  • Ability to easily update the version of system firmware running on a device

Which version is running on my device?

The easiest place to find the version of system firmware running on your device is in the Web IDE. From the main view, click on the devices icon () from the sidebar. This opens up the device drawer. From here, find the desired device and click on the arrow () to expand device details. You should now see the system firmware version running on the device:

Find system firmware in the Web IDE

This device is running system firmware version 0.6.2

You can also find this information in the Desktop IDE, in the bottom rail:

Find system firmware in the Desktop IDE

Note that you will need to be the owner of the device to have visibility into system firmware in the IDE. Now that we know the version of system firmware on the device, how can we update it to a different version?

Updating remotely

For devices in which you do not have physical access, you have the ability to update system firmware over-the-air.

Flashing application firmware

One of the easiest and safest ways to update system firmware is to simply flash an application firmware that was compiled against a newer version of system firmware. The device will receive the incompatible firmware app, and use safe mode healer to automatically download the newer system modules.

In the Web IDE, this can be done by using the system firmware target dropdown, and choosing a version that is newer than what is currently on the device.

Select newer version of system firmware in the IDE

In this case, the app will be compiled against 0.7.0-rc.3, a prereleased system firmware version

This can be just as easily accomplished using the Desktop IDE:

Desktop IDE newer version of system firmware

Now, compile and flash the firmware by clicking on the flash () icon. Your device will receive the new application firmware and reboot. Then, it will automatically enter safe mode and trigger the cloud to resolve the incompatibility by sending it system firmware version 0.7.0-rc.3.

Sweet! You just updated the system firmware on your device.

There's a couple of things to note:

  • This approach will also work for product firmware. When a product firmware binary is released to a fleet, any device that receives it will enter into safe mode and heal itself by downloading the required system firmware
  • This approach will trigger system firmware upgrades, but not downgrades. As mentioned earlier, system firmware is backwards compatible meaning that devices can successfully run application firmware compiled against an older version of system firmware than it currently is running

CLI (Remote)

You can also use the Particle CLI to remotely update a device's system firmware without changing the application firmware. This is a more advanced approach and requires some technical chops.

To do this, first visit the system firmware releases page on GitHub and locate the version you'd like to send to a device.

When you find the desired release, scroll down to the Downloads section. Here you will find the system firmware binary files. Remember that these binaries are specific to a device type, and a complete system firmware is comprised of multiple parts. Hone in on the files that begin with system-part:

System firmware binaries

Available downloads for the 0.7.0-rc.3 release

Find the files relevant to your device (each binary is suffixed with the device type) and click to download them to your machine. Note that you'll only need to do this step once to store a copy of the binaries on your computer.

Next, you'll flash these files to a device using the particle flash command in the CLI. If you haven't already, you must download the Particle CLI. Open up your Terminal and run the following commands to flash the system modules to a device:

particle flash YOUR_DEVICE_NAME_OR_ID path/to/system-part1.bin
particle flash YOUR_DEVICE_NAME_ID path/to/system-part2.bin
# Sometimes required
particle flash YOUR_DEVICE_NAME_ID path/to/system-part3.bin

Use caution when using this method. Double check that you are flashing the correct binaries for the given device type, and that you flash all required system parts.

Updating locally

For devices in which you have physical access, there are also methods to update system firmware over-the-wire.

CLI (Local)

The Particle CLI offers two different methods of updating system firmware locally. Both require that the device is connected to your computer over USB. If you haven't already, you must download the Particle CLI and ensure you are running version 1.24.1 or later. You can check with particle --version.

The first approach is to run particle update. Open up your Terminal and run the following command to flash the latest system firmware to a device:

# put the device in DFU mode first, then update the system firmware
$ particle update
> Your device is ready for a system update.
> This process should take about 30 seconds. Here goes!

! System firmware update successfully completed!

> Your device should now restart automatically.

Be sure to put the device in DFU mode before running the command. Note that this will update your device to the newest system firmware - it does not currently allow you to flash a different verrsion of firmware other than the latest.

If you'd like to use the CLI to flash a system firmware version other than the latest, you can use the particle flash command in a similar way as outlined above. The only difference will be that you'll pass an argument to tell the CLI to flash the files over USB, and you won't have to include the device name or ID in the command:

particle flash --usb path/to/system-part1.bin
particle flash --usb path/to/system-part2.bin
# Sometimes required
particle flash --usb path/to/system-part3.bin

Firmware Manger

The Firmware Manager is a desktop application that upgrades your device to the latest system firmware. For Electrons, it provides an easy way to update system firmware while avoiding cellular data charges.

Firmware Manager

The Firmware Manager is available for Windows and Mac

Like the particle update command, the Firmware Manager updates your device to the newest system firmware. For more information on this method, please check out the firmware manager guide.