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Particle Interval Timer using hardware timers for Core/Photon/Electron
Device OS Version:
This table is generated from an automated build. Success only indicates that the code compiled successfully.
This content is provided by the library maintainer and has not been validated or approved. /* Copyright (c) 2014 Paul Kourany, based on work by Dianel Gilbert
- UPDATED Jan 29, 2016 - update to Libraries 2.0
- UPDATED Jan 5, 2016 - Udpated/fixed example
- UPDATED Sept 3, 2015 - Added support for Particle Photon
- BUG FIX Oct 5, 2015 - Fix for manual/auto SIT allocation (thanks @lige!)`
Copyright (c) 2013 Daniel Gilbert, firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright (c) 2014 Paul Kourany, email@example.com
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. */
IntervalTimer uses interrupts to call a function at a precise timing interval. Advanced programming is required to properly use IntervalTimer, because your function runs as an interrupt. See below for details.
IntervalTimer is generally recommended for use only in libraries and advanced applications which require highly precise timing. Usually elapsedMillis variables are easier to use, because they avoid the pitfalls of interrupt programming.
- Using Hardware Timers
Up to 5 (3 on the Core) IntervalTimer objects may be active simultaneously. The Photon hardware timers TMR3, TMR4, TMR5, TMR6 and TMR7 will allocated while the Core hardware timers TMR2, TMR3 and TMR4 will be allocated as required (in those orders).
Hardware timers are used for providing PWM output via the analogWrite() function. Allocating a hardware timer will disable PWM capabilities to certain pins based on the timer allocated as follows:
CORE: PIN TMR2 TMR3 TMR4 ---------------------------- D0 x D1 x A0 x A1 x A4 x A5 x A6 x A7 x PHOTON: PIN TMR3 TMR4 TMR5 TMR6 TMR7 -------------------------------------------- D0 x D1 x D2 x D3 x A4 x A5 x WKP x
Note that digital I/O (read/write) will still functions on the affected pins. Also not that on the Photon, TMR6 and TMR7 are not mapped to any I/O pins.
- IntervalTimer Usage
Create an IntervalTimer object. You may create as many IntervalTimers as needed, but only a limited number (3 on Core, 5 on Photon) may be active simultaneously. Normally IntervalTimer objects should be created as global variables.
myTimer.begin(function, time, timebase); //AUTO allocate timer
Auto-allocate a timer from the pool and start it. The interval is specified in microseconds or (half) milliseconds based on the selected timebase: uSec for microseconds and hmSec for half-milliseconds. The time specified as a uint16_t. The function returns true if successful. False is returned if all hardware timer resources are allocated and used by other IntervalTimer objects.
The functions specified to be called by IntervalTimer should be short, run as quickly as possible, and should avoid calling other functions if possible.
myTimer.begin(function, time, timebase, id); //MANUALLY allocate timer
Manually allocate a timer from the pool by specifying its id and start it. The specified id corresponds to a hardware timer - Core = TIMER2, TIMER3 or TIMER4 and Photon = TIMER3, TIMER4, TIMER5, TIMER6, TIMER7.The remaining parameters are the same as above.
Reset the timer's time and timebase. Timer will be stopped and restarted with new settings. See above for parameter details.
Enables (action = INT_ENABLE) or disables (action = INT_DISABLE) an active IntervalTimer's interrupts without deleting the object
Returns -1 if timer is not allocated or allocated timer id (Core = TIMER2, TIMER3, TIMER4 and Photon = TIMER3, TIMER4, TIMER5, TIMER6, TIMER7).
Stop the timer (and interrupts) and deallocate it from the timer pool. The hardware resource becomes available for use by other IntervalTimer objects.
- Example Program
The included demo program will create 3 or 5 Interval Timers (maximum allowed on Core or Photon) to blink three LEDs at different intervals. The first timer will blink the onboard LED while 2 (Core) or 4 (Photon) extra LEDs (and small current limiting resistors) must be added by the user on pins D3 and D4 on Core and D3, D4, D5 and D6 on Photon. After 100 blinks, Timer1 will reset to 1/4 of its interval (250ms) and after 200 more blinks, Timer1 is shut down and will stop blinking.
- Interrupt Context Issues
IntervalTimer will call your function from interrupt context. Because it can interrupt your program at any moment, special design is necessary to share data with the rest of your program. Many ordinary functions are not designed to work properly from interrupt context. String objects should be avoided. A general guideline is to keep your function short and avoid calling other functions if possible.
Variables usually need to be "volatile" types. Volatile tells the compiler to avoid optimizations that assume variable can not spontaneously change. Because your function may change variables while your program is using them, the compiler needs this hint. But volatile alone is often not enough.
When accessing shared variables, usually interrupts must be disabled. Even with volatile, if the interrupt changes a multi-byte variable between a sequence of instructions, it can be read incorrectly. If your data is multiple variables, such as an array and a count, usually interrupts need to be disabled for the entire sequence of your code which accesses the data.